What are Viking Rune?

What are Viking Runes?

Viking runes are a fascinating facet of Norse history, representing not only a system of writing but also a profound cultural and spiritual element of the Viking world. Known as "Norse runes," these symbols are steeped in myth, magic, and mystery, offering insights into the beliefs and practices of the Norse people. In this blog, we will explore the origins, uses, and meanings of Viking runes, alongside other significant Viking symbols, to understand their enduring appeal and significance.

Origins of Norse Runes

The runic alphabets are believed to have been developed in the 1st or 2nd century AD, with the earliest known runic inscriptions dating back to around 150 AD. These alphabets evolved from earlier alphabetic scripts used around the Mediterranean, adapted by the Germanic tribes through contact via trade or conquest. The most ancient runic alphabet, known as the Elder Futhark, contains 24 runes and was used widely across the Germanic world before the Viking Age.

By the Viking Age (circa 793–1066 AD), the Younger Futhark, a streamlined version of the Elder Futhark with only 16 characters, was in use. This adaptation reflects changes in the Old Norse language and the needs of the people using it, including Vikings. Each rune served multiple purposes—not only representing a sound but also embodying a specific meaning or concept, which was critical for both communication and various magical practices.

Understanding Viking Symbols and Meanings

Viking runes are a subset of broader Viking symbols used in various cultural aspects, including art, warfare, and trade. Each rune is a symbol loaded with multiple meanings and associations. For example, the rune Fehu, representing the 'f' sound, also symbolizes cattle, wealth, and prosperity. This duality of purpose illustrates how runes were woven into the everyday life and spiritual practices of the Norse people.

Beyond runes, other symbols were prevalent in Viking culture. The Valknut, an interlocking triple-horn design, is often associated with the god Odin and represents the transition between life and death. Similarly, Mjölnir, the hammer of Thor, symbolizes protection and power, and was commonly worn as an amulet for courage and protection.

Viking Runes in Daily Life and Magic

Runes were carved into wood, stone, metal, and bone and were used for various purposes beyond writing. They served as vital tools in practices such as divination and magic. Rune casting, for instance, involved casting rune stones to interpret fate or answer questions. This practice highlights the deep spiritual connection the Norse felt with the runes, viewing them not merely as letters but as conduits of greater, mystical powers.

In terms of magic, runes might be carved into personal items like weapons or amulets to invoke divine protection, luck in battle, or personal strength. This practice was rooted in the belief that runes could influence the world around them through the power inherent in their symbols.

The Runic Calendars and Art

The Norse also used runes in their calendars, known as "Runic calendars." These calendars were a unique combination of runic inscriptions and traditional calendar elements, used to track time and significant dates. They reflect the practical application of runes in Norse society, showing their utility in everyday tasks as well as in spiritual and ceremonial contexts.

In Viking art, runes and symbolic motifs were often intertwined, with artifacts and stone carvings depicting runic inscriptions alongside images of Norse gods, mythical creatures, and scenes from sagas. These artworks serve as a testament to the integrated nature of runes within Viking culture, where art, language, and religion were closely interlinked.

Runes in Modern Times

Today, Viking runes and symbols have captured the imagination of people worldwide, featuring prominently in literature, movies, and television. They appear in fantasy novels and are used in various forms of neopaganism and modern spiritual practices. Their mysterious allure and connection to a storied past make them appealing to those drawn to historical mysticism and the esoteric.

Moreover, modern rune enthusiasts often study and use runes in personal meditations, crafts, and as a means of connecting with historical Viking traditions. This revival of interest shows the lasting impact of these ancient symbols on contemporary culture and spirituality.


Viking runes represent a complex interweaving of language, art, and spirituality, embodying the multifaceted aspects of Norse life. They are more than just characters from an ancient alphabet; they are powerful symbols that carried deep meanings and played a significant role in the cultural and spiritual lives of the Vikings. As we delve into the world of Viking symbols and meanings, we uncover layers of history that continue to enchant and educate, offering a window into the world of our ancestors that is rich with symbolism, power, and mystery. Through the study of Viking runes, we connect with a past that, though distant, is still very much alive in our collective imagination.

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